Sialylation acts as a checkpoint for innate immune responses in the central nervous system
Klaus C, Liao H, Allendorf DH, Brown GC, Neumann H
Sialic acids are monosaccharides that normally terminate the glycan chains of cell surface glyco-proteins and -lipids in mammals, and are highly enriched in the central nervous tissue. Sialic acids are conjugated to proteins and lipids (termed "sialylation") by specific sialyltransferases, and are removed ("desialylation") by neuraminidases. Cell surface sialic acids are sensed by complement factor H (FH) to inhibit complement activation or by sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (SIGLEC) receptors to inhibit microglial activation, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst. In contrast, desialylation of cells enables binding of the opsonins C1, calreticulin, galectin-3, and collectins, stimulating phagocytosis of such cells. Hypersialylation is used by bacteria and cancers as camouflage to escape immune recognition, while polysialylation of neurons protects synapses and neurogenesis. Insufficient lysosomal cleavage of sialylated molecules can lead to lysosomal accumulation of lipids and aggregated proteins, which if excessive may be expelled into the extracellular space. On the other hand, desialylation of immune receptors can activate them or trigger removal of proteins. Loss of inhibitory SIGLECs or FH triggers reduced clearance of aggregates, oxidative brain damage and complement-mediated retinal damage. Thus, cell surface sialylation recognized by FH, SIGLEC, and other immune-related receptors acts as a major checkpoint inhibitor of innate immune responses in the central nervous system, while excessive cleavage of sialic acid residues and consequently removing this checkpoint inhibitor may trigger lipid accumulation, protein aggregation, inflammation, and neurodegeneration.
Control of Innate Immunity by Sialic Acids in the Nervous Tissue
Liao H, Klaus C, Neumann H
Int J Mol Sci 2020
Sialic acids (Sias) are the most abundant terminal sugar residues of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of mammalian cells. The nervous tissue is the organ with the highest expression level of Sias. The 'sialylation' of glycoconjugates is performed via sialyltransferases, whereas 'desialylation' is done by sialidases or is a possible consequence of oxidative damage. Sialic acid residues on the neural cell surfaces inhibit complement and microglial activation, as well as phagocytosis of the underlying structures, via binding to (i) complement factor H (CFH) or (ii) sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (SIGLEC) receptors. In contrast, activated microglial cells show sialidase activity that desialylates both microglia and neurons, and further stimulates innate immunity via microglia and complement activation. The desialylation conveys neurons to become susceptible to phagocytosis, as well as triggers a microglial phagocytosis-associated oxidative burst and inflammation. Dysfunctions of the 'Sia-SIGLEC' and/or 'Sia-complement' axes often lead to neurological diseases. Thus, Sias on glycoconjugates of the intact glycocalyx and its desialylation are major regulators of neuroinflammation.
Polysialic acid and Siglec-E orchestrate negative feedback regulation of microglia activation
Thiesler H, Beimdiek J, Hildebrandt H
Cell mol Life Sci 2020
Polysialic acid (polySia) emerges as a novel regulator of microglia activity. We recently identified polysialylated proteins in the Golgi compartment of murine microglia that are released in response to inflammatory stimulation. Since exogenously added polySia is able to attenuate the inflammatory response, we proposed that the release of polysialylated proteins constitutes a mechanism for negative feedback regulation of microglia activation. Here, we demonstrate that translocation of polySia from the Golgi to the cell surface can be induced by calcium depletion of the Golgi compartment and that polysialylated proteins are continuously released for at least 24 h after the onset of inflammatory stimulation. The latter was unexpected, because polySia signals detected by immunocytochemistry are rapidly depleted. However, it indicates that the amount of released polySia is much higher than anticipated based on immunostaining. This may be crucial for microglial responses during traumatic brain injury (TBI), as we detected polySia signals in activated microglia around a stab wound in the adult mouse brain. In BV2 microglia, the putative polySia receptor Siglec-E is internalized during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation and in response to polySia exposure, indicating interaction. Correspondingly, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Siglec-E knockout prevents inhibition of pro inflammatory activation by exogenously added polySia and leads to a strong increase of the LPS response. A comparable increase of LPS-induced activation has been observed in microglia with abolished polySia synthesis. Together, these results indicate that the release of the microglia-intrinsic polySia pool, as implicated in TBI, inhibits the inflammatory response by acting as a trans-activating ligand of Siglec-E.
Reduced sialylation triggers homeostatic synapse and neuronal loss in middle-aged mice
Klaus C, Hansen JN, Ginolhac A, Gérard D, Gnanapragassam VS, Horstkorte R, Rossdam C, Buettner FFR, Sauter T, Sinkkonen L, Neumann H, Linnartz-Gerlach B
Neurobiol Aging 2020
Sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) receptors are linked to neurodegenerative processes, but the role of sialic acids in physiological aging is still not fully understood. We investigated the impact of reduced sialylation in the brain of mice heterozygous for the enzyme glucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE+/-) that is essential for sialic acid biosynthesis. We demonstrate that GNE+/- mice have hyposialylation in different brain regions, less synapses in the hippocampus and reduced microglial arborization already at 6 months followed by increased loss of neurons at 12 months. A transcriptomic analysis revealed no pro-inflammatory changes indicating an innate homeostatic immune process leading to the removal of synapses and neurons in GNE+/- mice during aging. Crossbreeding with complement C3-deficient mice rescued the earlier onset of neuronal and synaptic loss as well as the changes in microglial arborization. Thus, sialic acids of the glycocalyx contribute to brain homeostasis and act as a recognition system for the innate immune system in the brain.
Minimal B Cell Extrinsic IgG Glycan Modifications of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory IgG Preparations in vivo
Schaffert A, Hanić M, Novokmet M, Zaytseva O, Krištić J, Lux A, Nitschke L, Peipp M, Pezer M, Hennig R, Rapp E, Lauc G, Nimmerjahn F
Front Immunol 2020
Select residues in the biantennary sugar moiety attached to the fragment crystallizable of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies can modulate IgG effector functions. Thus, afucosylated IgG glycovariants have enhanced cytotoxic activity, whereas IgG glycovariants rich in terminal sialic acid residues can trigger anti-inflammatory effects. More recent evidence suggests that terminal α2,6 linked sialic acids can be attached to antibodies post IgG secretion. These findings raise concerns for the use of therapeutic antibodies as they may change their glycosylation status in the patient and hence affect their activity. To investigate to what extent B cell extrinsic sialylation processes modify therapeutic IgG preparations in vivo, we analyzed changes in human intravenous IgG (IVIg) sialylation upon injection in mice deficient in B cells or in mice lacking the sialyltransferase 1, which catalyzes the addition of α2,6 linked sialic acid residues. By performing a time course of IgG glycan analysis with HILIC-UPLC-FLR (plus MS) and xCGE-LIF our study suggests that therapeutic IgG glycosylation is stable upon injection in vivo. Only a very small fraction of IgG molecules acquired sialic acid structures predominantly in the Fab- but not the Fc-portion upon injection in vivo, suggesting that therapeutic antibody glycosylation will remain stable upon injection in vivo.